INMET and INPE stations, Brazil

Last update: June 2018

    INMET stations - INPE stations

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Illustration: INMET and INPE stations used for the validation

INMET network: 31 stations

List and characteristics of stations

Station State Latitude (°) Longitude (°) Altitude (m) Period of data availability
Agua-Clara MS -20.444 -52.876 338 2010-08-16 to 2014-12-31
Aquidauana MS -20.475 -55.784 155 2006-11-01 to 2014-12-31
Ararangua SC -28.931 -49.498 12 2008-09-29 to 2014-12-31
Bataguassu MS -21.750 -52.471 387 2013-04-09 to 2014-12-31
Cacoal RO -11.446 -61.434 210 2008-07-20 to 2014-12-31
Campo-Bom RS -29.674 -51.064 24 2013-12-02 to 2014-12-31
Canela RS -29.369 -50.827 830 2008-08-27 to 2014-12-31
Cidade-Gaucha PR -23.359 -52.932 381 2008-03-11 to 2014-12-31
Clevelandia PR -26.417 -52.349 980 2008-05-16 to 2014-12-31
Corumba MS -18.997 -57.638 126 2006-10-26 to 2014-12-31
Costa-Rica MS -18.493 -53.171 730 2012-12-06 to 2014-12-31
Curitibanos SC -27.289 -50.604 982 2008-02-29 to 2014-12-31
Dionisio-Cerqueira SC -26.287 -53.633 810 2008-05-31 to 2014-12-31
Dom-Pedrito RS -30.992 -54.815 170 2010-04-27 to 2014-12-31
Dourados MS -22.194 -54.911 469 2006-10-21 to 2014-12-31
Fos-do-Iguacu PR -25.602 -54.483 321 2008-02-15 to 2014-12-31
Ibiruba RS -28.653 -53.112 456 2012-12-12 to 2014-12-31
Jardim MS -21.479 -56.138 249 2011-08-09 to 2014-12-31
Joacaba SC -27.169 -51.559 776 2007-10-16 to 2014-12-31
Joaquim-Tavora PR -23.505 -49.946 522 2006-11-24 to 2014-12-31
Major-Vieira SC -26.394 -50.363 808 2009-02-10 to 2014-12-31
Maringa PR -23.405 -51.933 542 2006-11-21 to 2014-12-31
Nova-Tebas PR -24.437 -51.963 654 2006-12-21 to 2014-12-31
Porto-Velho RO -8.794 -63.846 95 2007-07-12 to 2014-12-31
Santiago RS -29.192 -54.886 394 2009-02-04 to 2014-12-31
Sonora MS -17.635 -54.760 495 2012-12-03 to 2014-12-31
Teutonia RS -29.450 -51.824 81 2012-08-08 to 2014-12-31
Uruguaiana RS -29.840 -57.082 62 2006-09-28 to 2014-12-31
Ventania PR -24.280 -50.210 1106 2011-04-18 to 2014-12-31
Vilhena RO -12.735 -60.158 590 2008-08-26 to 2014-12-31
Xanxere SC -26.939 -52.398 889 2008-03-16 to 2014-12-31

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Elements concerning the Quality check applied on these measurements

The satellite-derived solar radiation values are compared to the hourly Global Horizontal Irradiation measurements from the 31 stations of the INMET network.
The measurements, also named "observations", were originally quality checked using the procedure described here. As only the GHI component is available in the observations for both datasets, no consistency check is possible via cross-comparison from one component to another. Unfortunately, this protocol turned out to be insufficient for these hourly measurements and that the test to discard the not plausible values ("Extremely Rare Limits" and "Physical Possible Limits") were too permissive; Too many outlyers remained after the QC. Prior the computation of the different quantities to assess the deviation between the satellite estimates and the station measurements as depicted in the protocol of validation, we decided to discard also the measurement values when they are:

  • below 5% * clear sky dry, which corresponds to the ESRA clear sky with no turbidity
  • above 100% * clear sky dry

We remind that the other steps are:

  • Set night, sunrise and sunset observation values to zero
  • Set satellite values to Not a Number ("NaN"), when the observation is missing.
  • Set observation values below 10 W/m² to zero
  • As soon as the quality check procedure is over, then aggregate the hourly values to generate partial daily and monthly sums as depicted in the protocol of validation.

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INPE network: 11 stations

List and characteristics of stations

Station State Latitude Longitude Altitude (m) Period
CachoeiraPaulista RJ -22.690 -45.006 574 2014-03-01 to 2015-01-31
CampoGrande MS -20.438 -54.538 677 2012-09-01 to 2015-01-31
Chapeco SC -27.080 -52.614 700 2009-01-01 to 2009-12-31
Cuiaba MT -15.555 -56.070 185 2006-01-01 to 2012-12-31
Curitiba PR -25.495 -49.331 891 2014-09-01 to 2015-01-31
Natal RN -5.837 -35.206 58 2009-01-01 to 2015-01-31
Ourinhos SP -22.949 -49.894 446 2006-02-01 to 2011-03-31
Palmas TO -10.178 -48.362 216 2005-04-01 to 2014-06-30
Petrolina PE -9.069 -40.320 387 2007-01-01 to 2014-06-30
Saoluiz MA -2.594 -44.212 40 2009-01-01 to 2014-06-30
Sombrio SC -29.096 -49.813 15 2013-01-01 to 2015-01-31

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Elements concerning the Quality check applied on these measurements

The satellite-derived solar radiation values are compared to the 1 minute Global Horizontal Irradiation measurements from the 11 stations of the INPE network.
The measurements, also named observations, were originally quality checked using the procedure described here. As only the GHI component is available in the observations for both datasets, no consistency check is possible via cross-comparison from one component to another. Unfortunately, this protocol turned out to be insufficient for these hourly measurements and that the test to discard the not plausible values ("Extremely Rare Limits" and "Physical Possible Limits") were too permissive; Too many outlyers remained after the QC. Prior the computation of the different quantities to assess the deviation between the satellite estimates and the station measurements as depicted in the protocol of validation, we decided to discard also the measurement values when they are:

  • below 2% * clear sky dry, which corresponds to the ESRA clear sky with no turbidity
  • above 120% * clear sky dry
  • time shift in the data was also observed for several days in the time series. We decided that if more than 10% of the values were located during nightime, the whole day is discarded.

We remind that the other steps are:

  • Set night, sunrise and sunset observation values to zero
  • As soon as the quality check procedure is over, then aggregate the 1 min values to generate the hourly values if at least 85% of the 1-min slots are available. Apply an intelligent mean which takes into account the sun position at each minute.
  • Then the hourly values are aggregated to generate partial daily and monthly sums as depicted in the protocol of validation.

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