Data for the current day:

HelioClim-3 version 4 real-time and short-term forecast service

Last update: Nov. 2016

    Principle  -  Access   -   Validation

Principle

  • Operational since March 2015
  • Access: automatic-only
  • Time steps: all the 15 minute and hourly data of the current day "D"
  • database: HelioClim-3v4 radiation values in real time (H-15 min) and short-term forecasts using a model of persistence until end of the current day. NB: Version 5 can not be available in real time since the data are only available at "D-2".
  • News mi-March 2016: the service starts as soon as the sun elevation is above 2° (instead of originally 12°). The advantage is to deliver a data from sunrise onwards.

Methodology: The principle of the HC3v4 real-time and short-term forecast service is the persistence of the clear-sky index Kc, defined as the ratio of the GHI by the GHI in clear-sky conditions. Figure 1 illustrates this principle by giving an example of 15 min slots available until 11:25 AM (Figure 1 a)) for a given day d. The last slot available gives half-cloudy half-sunny weather; the main assumption of the Kc persistence states that the same type of weather will be available until the end of the current day, modulated by the sun position (Figure 1 b). Finally, a new MSG image is acquired, and finally, the weather is nicer than planned 15 min ago. The prevision is consequently adjusted (Figure 1 c)). Every 15 min, the service provides the data until the end of the day, with estimates based on all the slots available until the current instant, and forecasts based on local persistence afterwards.

Figure 1: Illustration of the principle of the HC3v4 real-time and short-term forecast service

NB: We remind that the last image acquired by our system is 20:45 UT. As a consequence, after that time, the service in real time delivers the same outputs as the standard service at d-1, and the values are not updated anymore.

Access

Via the SoDa website (for free)

Access the interface - free -

Automatic (for pay)

On Windows, you have first to download the executable wget.exe in a directory. In the same directory, create a .bat file with the following wget command. On Unix, wget is a standard tool on Unix, so just create a .sh file with the following wget command.

Request (Windows):
wget -O output.csv --header="soda-user: your_login" --header="soda-passwd: your_password" ...
"http://server/pub/hc3v4_forecast.php?geopoint=latitude,longitude&elevation=altitude ...
&firstday=yyyy-mm-dd&lastday=yyyy-mm-dd&duration=time_step&time=time_reference&slope=tilt_of_panels ...
&azimuth=az_of_panels&albedo=ground_albedo&horizon=boolean_horizon&soda-user=your_login"

  Inputs:

  • HelioClim version is "4"
  • latitude and longitude: in degrees, with at least 3 digits after comma, e.g. "geopoint=45.563,7.25"
  • altitude: in meters. Set "elevation=-999" to let SoDa get the elevation from Nasa SRTM database
  • yyyy-mm-dd: the firstday and lastday MUST be identical and equal the date of the current day
  • time_step: "15" (minutes), "h" (hourly), "d" (daily), "m" (monthly)
  • time_reference: "TU" (universal time)
  • tilt_of_panels: from "0" (horizontal) to "90", and "-999" (2D tracking)
  • az_of_panels: from "0" (North), 90° (East), 180° (South) to 270° (West), and "-999" (2D tracking)
  • ground_albedo: from "0.0" to "1.0". A usual inland value is "0.2"
  • boolean_horizon: takes into account "1" or not "0" the far horizon. If not set, default value is "0".

  Outputs:

Compared to the output column content available in the standard HelioClim-3 services, two points differ:

  • the header is by default available
  • a column of code is available before the last column of Top of Atmosphere irradiation values:
    Code: 0: no data; 1: sun below horizon; 2: satellite assessment;  5: interpolation in time; 6: forecast

NB: For the SoDa Customers who already exploit the output format of hc3v4_request.php, it is possible to get back to this format by adding the following parameters "rely=0&header=0"

  Error messages

  • ERROR -1: Incorrect tilted plane parameter
  • ERROR -2: Cannot open file
  • ERROR -3: Cannot write to file
  • ERROR -4: Cannot read file
  • ERROR -5: Not enough memory
  • ERROR -6: Cannot access remote data
  • ERROR -7: Helioclim service is corrupted
  • ERROR -8: Unregistered IP address
  • ERROR -9: Incorrect location parameter
  • ERROR -10: Incorrect time step parameter
  • ERROR -11: Incorrect date parameter
  • ERROR -12: Incorrect horizon parameter
  • ERROR -13: Incorrect elevation parameter
  • ERROR -14: Incorrect stations file
  • ERROR -15: Subprogram failed with no error message
  • ERROR -16: Incorrect calibration parameter
  • ERROR -17: Incorrect user/password parameters
  • ERROR -18: Incorrect albedo parameter
  • ERROR -19: Incorrect time reference parameter
  • ERROR -21: Incorrect rely parameter
  • ERROR -22: Incorrect header parameter
  • ERROR -23: HC3 database is not updated
  • ERROR -24: This service is out the scope of your SoDa subscription
  • ERROR 1: No data available with these input parameters
    (generic message if the error is unknown)

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Validation

The HelioClim-3 version 4 radiation values in real time and forecasts until the end of the current day -D- are compared to the BSRN measurements following the protocol of validation described here on SoDa. The 1 min BSRN station measurements are preliminarily qualified using the quality check procedure available here.

Figure 2: locations of the BSRN stations

Please find below the validation results for the Global Horizontal component (GHI) for different forecast horizons: 15 min ahead, 30 min ahead, 1 hour ahead, 2 hours ahead, 4 hours ahead, and 6 hours ahead. These validation results are available for the monthly, daily, hourly and 15 min time steps.

Quality assessment results of GHI 15 min ahead persistence forecast

HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
MONTHLY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(kWh/m²)
Bias
(kWh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(kWh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 29 81.2 2.0 (2.5%) 7.2 (8.8%) 0.995
Toravere 104 83.4 -2.1 (-2.6%) 7.7 (9.2%) 0.989
Lindenberg 37 90.0 -4.3 (-4.8%) 6.5 (7.2%) 0.997
Cabauw 112 87.9 -3.6 (-4.1%) 7.5 (8.6%) 0.994
Camborne 41 93.5 -1.2 (-1.3%) 3.4 (3.6%) 0.999
Palaiseau 93 98.1 3.6 (3.6%) 6.2 (6.3%) 0.998
Payerne 88 99.1 -8.1 (-8.2%) 10.1 (10.2%) 0.995
Carpentras 120 128.7 1.6 (1.2%) 4.4 (3.4%) 0.998
Cener 44 115.7 2.7 (2.4%) 4.4 (3.8%) 0.998
Sede Boqer 100 169.1 -11.3 (-6.7%) 13.3 (7.9%) 0.994
Tamanrasset 124 174.5 1.2 (0.7%) 8.1 (4.7%) 0.980
Brasilia 65 147.5 7.1 (4.8%) 9.9 (6.7%) 0.972
Sao Martinho da Serra 72 143.7 -0.3 (-0.2%) 5.4 (3.7%) 0.994
De Aar 11 172.1 -0.0 (-0.0%) 2.0 (1.1%) 0.999

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
DAILY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 885 2668.1 61.1 (2.3%) 462.5 (17.3%) 0.972
Toravere 2977 2829.8 -70.8 (-2.5%) 437.5 (15.5%) 0.979
Lindenberg 1110 2998.7 -143.9 (-4.8%) 393.7 (13.1%) 0.987
Cabauw 3313 2958.2 -122.3 (-4.1%) 390.7 (13.2%) 0.986
Camborne 1202 3181.3 -41.7 (-1.3%) 323.3 (10.2%) 0.990
Palaiseau 2814 3244.4 116.7 (3.6%) 332.2 (10.2%) 0.991
Payerne 2543 3345.3 -271.0 (-8.1%) 478.5 (14.3%) 0.986
Carpentras 3536 4378.6 52.8 (1.2%) 336.1 (7.7%) 0.991
Cener 1251 3987.1 94.1 (2.4%) 355.5 (8.9%) 0.990
Sede Boqer 2892 5763.5 -386.6 (-6.7%) 536.5 (9.3%) 0.982
Tamanrasset 3483 6001.3 42.0 (0.7%) 570.3 (9.5%) 0.923
Brasilia 1881 5247.4 245.4 (4.7%) 638.6 (12.2%) 0.900
Sao Martinho da Serra 2169 4780.0 -15.3 (-0.3%) 425.1 (8.9%) 0.984
De Aar 330 5724.0 0.4 (0.0%) 409.2 (7.1%) 0.981

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
HOURLY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 11282 209.0 4.8 (2.3%) 65.8 (31.5%) 0.939
Toravere 35619 226.1 -5.1 (-2.3%) 62.1 (27.5%) 0.955
Lindenberg 13000 255.5 -12.4 (-4.8%) 61.9 (24.2%) 0.963
Cabauw 39110 250.6 -10.5 (-4.2%) 61.1 (24.4%) 0.962
Camborne 14371 265.9 -3.6 (-1.4%) 57.3 (21.5%) 0.970
Palaiseau 33138 275.4 9.7 (3.5%) 55.3 (20.1%) 0.973
Payerne 29016 290.4 -23.2 (-8.0%) 69.1 (23.8%) 0.967
Carpentras 42698 362.3 4.2 (1.2%) 51.0 (14.1%) 0.983
Cener 15144 333.1 7.7 (2.3%) 59.9 (18.0%) 0.976
Sede Boqer 32255 521.2 -34.2 (-6.6%) 67.9 (13.0%) 0.982
Tamanrasset 42197 503.3 3.5 (0.7%) 73.7 (14.6%) 0.975
Brasilia 22762 435.9 20.5 (4.7%) 116.4 (26.7%) 0.931
Sao Martinho da Serra 25941 400.0 -1.3 (-0.3%) 78.5 (19.6%) 0.968
De Aar 3791 496.5 0.1 (0.0%) 59.2 (11.9%) 0.982

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 44674 53.1 1.3 (2.4%) 20.8 (39.2%) 0.908
Toravere 140935 62.0 -1.7 (-2.7%) 21.2 (34.2%) 0.929
Lindenberg 50512 65.9 -3.1 (-4.8%) 21.6 (32.8%) 0.929
Cabauw 151714 64.9 -2.7 (-4.1%) 21.3 (32.8%) 0.929
Camborne 55813 68.7 -0.9 (-1.3%) 19.7 (28.7%) 0.945
Palaiseau 129087 70.9 2.5 (3.6%) 21.0 (29.7%) 0.939
Payerne 114493 76.2 -6.2 (-8.2%) 22.8 (29.9%) 0.944
Carpentras 164106 94.4 1.1 (1.2%) 17.2 (18.2%) 0.969
Cener 57978 87.8 2.1 (2.4%) 21.3 (24.2%) 0.951
Sede Boqer 128436 133.3 -8.8 (-6.6%) 20.3 (15.3%) 0.971
Tamanrasset 162628 133.0 0.9 (0.7%) 23.6 (17.7%) 0.958
Brasilia 87218 115.1 5.5 (4.8%) 38.5 (33.4%) 0.879
Sao Martinho da Serra 99160 105.2 -0.3 (-0.3%) 26.7 (25.4%) 0.942
De Aar 14635 129.3 -0.0 (-0.0%) 21.2 (16.4%) 0.962

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Quality assessment results of GHI 30 min ahead persistence forecast

HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
MONTHLY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(kWh/m²)
Bias
(kWh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(kWh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 29 81.2 2.0 (2.4%) 7.1 (8.7%) 0.995
Toravere 104 83.4 -2.1 (-2.5%) 7.6 (9.1%) 0.990
Lindenberg 37 89.9 -4.2 (-4.6%) 6.4 (7.1%) 0.997
Cabauw 112 87.9 -3.6 (-4.1%) 7.5 (8.6%) 0.994
Camborne 41 93.5 -1.2 (-1.3%) 3.3 (3.6%) 0.999
Palaiseau 93 98.1 3.6 (3.7%) 6.2 (6.3%) 0.998
Payerne 88 99.0 -7.9 (-8.0%) 9.9 (10.0%) 0.995
Carpentras 120 128.7 1.6 (1.2%) 4.5 (3.5%) 0.998
Cener 44 115.6 2.5 (2.2%) 4.3 (3.7%) 0.998
Sede Boqer 100 169.0 -11.5 (-6.8%) 13.5 (8.0%) 0.994
Tamanrasset 124 174.4 1.3 (0.8%) 8.3 (4.8%) 0.979
Brasilia 65 147.4 7.4 (5.0%) 10.2 (6.9%) 0.970
Sao Martinho da Serra 72 143.6 -0.2 (-0.2%) 5.7 (3.9%) 0.994
De Aar 11 172.0 -0.0 (-0.0%) 1.9 (1.1%) 0.999

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
DAILY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 885 2667.7 58.7 (2.2%) 462.8 (17.4%) 0.972
Toravere 2966 2831.9 -69.3 (-2.4%) 436.6 (15.4%) 0.979
Lindenberg 1110 2997.7 -140.0 (-4.7%) 394.6 (13.2%) 0.986
Cabauw 3312 2957.6 -122.6 (-4.1%) 395.8 (13.4%) 0.986
Camborne 1202 3180.5 -42.5 (-1.3%) 330.5 (10.4%) 0.990
Palaiseau 2814 3243.5 119.2 (3.7%) 336.3 (10.4%) 0.991
Payerne 2538 3344.1 -267.3 (-8.0%) 480.1 (14.4%) 0.986
Carpentras 3536 4377.4 52.9 (1.2%) 340.2 (7.8%) 0.990
Cener 1250 3985.9 88.5 (2.2%) 359.0 (9.0%) 0.990
Sede Boqer 2877 5773.8 -393.6 (-6.8%) 541.6 (9.4%) 0.982
Tamanrasset 3444 6024.3 46.4 (0.8%) 580.5 (9.6%) 0.919
Brasilia 1876 5247.2 256.3 (4.9%) 645.8 (12.3%) 0.898
Sao Martinho da Serra 2167 4778.4 -12.2 (-0.3%) 441.5 (9.2%) 0.983
De Aar 330 5722.0 0.4 (0.0%) 411.3 (7.2%) 0.981

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
HOURLY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 11236 209.8 4.6 (2.2%) 70.0 (33.4%) 0.931
Toravere 35456 227.1 -5.1 (-2.2%) 65.1 (28.7%) 0.951
Lindenberg 12821 258.8 -12.2 (-4.7%) 68.5 (26.5%) 0.954
Cabauw 38608 253.7 -10.6 (-4.2%) 68.2 (26.9%) 0.953
Camborne 14219 268.6 -3.8 (-1.4%) 64.3 (24.0%) 0.962
Palaiseau 32734 278.6 10.0 (3.6%) 63.8 (22.9%) 0.964
Payerne 28373 296.6 -23.3 (-7.9%) 74.8 (25.2%) 0.960
Carpentras 41929 368.6 4.3 (1.2%) 57.9 (15.7%) 0.978
Cener 14818 340.0 7.4 (2.2%) 66.9 (19.7%) 0.969
Sede Boqer 30613 548.2 -36.5 (-6.7%) 72.4 (13.2%) 0.977
Tamanrasset 40469 523.6 3.9 (0.8%) 79.9 (15.3%) 0.969
Brasilia 21588 458.4 22.6 (4.9%) 123.2 (26.9%) 0.918
Sao Martinho da Serra 25153 411.8 -1.1 (-0.3%) 87.2 (21.2%) 0.960
De Aar 3713 506.5 0.1 (0.0%) 66.2 (13.1%) 0.977

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 44587 53.2 1.2 (2.3%) 22.6 (42.6%) 0.890
Toravere 140496 62.2 -1.6 (-2.6%) 22.5 (36.2%) 0.920
Lindenberg 50239 66.2 -3.1 (-4.6%) 24.1 (36.4%) 0.911
Cabauw 151005 65.2 -2.7 (-4.1%) 23.9 (36.6%) 0.910
Camborne 55592 68.9 -0.9 (-1.3%) 22.4 (32.5%) 0.929
Palaiseau 128534 71.2 2.6 (3.7%) 24.0 (33.8%) 0.920
Payerne 113485 76.8 -6.2 (-8.0%) 25.0 (32.6%) 0.930
Carpentras 163070 95.0 1.2 (1.2%) 19.6 (20.6%) 0.960
Cener 57526 88.4 1.9 (2.2%) 23.7 (26.9%) 0.938
Sede Boqer 126053 135.7 -9.2 (-6.7%) 21.6 (15.9%) 0.965
Tamanrasset 160096 135.1 1.0 (0.8%) 25.3 (18.8%) 0.950
Brasilia 85821 116.9 5.8 (5.0%) 39.7 (33.9%) 0.869
Sao Martinho da Serra 98082 106.3 -0.2 (-0.2%) 28.9 (27.2%) 0.931
De Aar 14518 130.3 -0.0 (-0.0%) 23.8 (18.2%) 0.952

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Quality assessment results of GHI 1 hour ahead persistence forecast

HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
MONTHLY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(kWh/m²)
Bias
(kWh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(kWh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 29 81.0 1.7 (2.1%) 6.7 (8.3%) 0.995
Toravere 104 83.2 -2.3 (-2.7%) 7.5 (9.0%) 0.990
Lindenberg 37 89.6 -4.1 (-4.6%) 6.2 (7.0%) 0.997
Cabauw 112 87.5 -3.7 (-4.3%) 7.6 (8.7%) 0.994
Camborne 41 93.2 -1.5 (-1.6%) 3.3 (3.6%) 0.999
Palaiseau 93 97.7 3.6 (3.7%) 6.1 (6.2%) 0.998
Payerne 88 98.6 -7.8 (-8.0%) 9.8 (9.9%) 0.996
Carpentras 120 128.2 1.3 (1.0%) 4.4 (3.4%) 0.998
Cener 44 115.1 2.0 (1.7%) 4.2 (3.6%) 0.998
Sede Boqer 99 169.2 -12.5 (-7.4%) 14.5 (8.6%) 0.994
Tamanrasset 123 174.1 1.0 (0.6%) 8.5 (4.9%) 0.978
Brasilia 64 147.0 7.5 (5.1%) 10.5 (7.1%) 0.967
Sao Martinho da Serra 72 142.9 -0.5 (-0.3%) 6.2 (4.4%) 0.993
De Aar 11 171.4 -0.4 (-0.2%) 2.0 (1.2%) 0.999

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
DAILY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 885 2661.6 49.9 (1.9%) 468.0 (17.6%) 0.971
Toravere 2925 2832.7 -72.7 (-2.6%) 442.3 (15.6%) 0.979
Lindenberg 1107 2992.7 -137.5 (-4.6%) 405.6 (13.6%) 0.985
Cabauw 3304 2949.0 -126.9 (-4.3%) 414.0 (14.0%) 0.984
Camborne 1202 3170.0 -49.8 (-1.6%) 353.9 (11.2%) 0.988
Palaiseau 2814 3230.9 118.7 (3.7%) 350.3 (10.8%) 0.990
Payerne 2496 3356.4 -265.8 (-7.9%) 493.5 (14.7%) 0.985
Carpentras 3536 4359.3 43.1 (1.0%) 354.7 (8.1%) 0.990
Cener 1241 3986.4 69.1 (1.7%) 371.8 (9.3%) 0.988
Sede Boqer 2821 5797.3 -430.1 (-7.4%) 574.5 (9.9%) 0.981
Tamanrasset 3353 6045.2 41.7 (0.7%) 599.7 (9.9%) 0.910
Brasilia 1853 5229.7 261.2 (5.0%) 661.6 (12.7%) 0.890
Sao Martinho da Serra 2160 4760.1 -22.0 (-0.5%) 488.1 (10.3%) 0.979
De Aar 330 5700.8 -11.9 (-0.2%) 421.0 (7.4%) 0.979

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
HOURLY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 10852 216.4 4.1 (1.9%) 82.2 (38.0%) 0.904
Toravere 33554 238.7 -5.6 (-2.3%) 76.7 (32.1%) 0.932
Lindenberg 12168 271.0 -12.7 (-4.7%) 85.0 (31.4%) 0.928
Cabauw 36623 265.7 -11.6 (-4.4%) 85.6 (32.2%) 0.924
Camborne 13567 280.0 -4.6 (-1.7%) 81.9 (29.2%) 0.938
Palaiseau 30990 292.3 10.4 (3.6%) 83.0 (28.4%) 0.937
Payerne 27075 308.8 -23.9 (-7.7%) 90.0 (29.1%) 0.940
Carpentras 39552 388.2 3.6 (0.9%) 74.7 (19.2%) 0.962
Cener 13955 358.5 5.8 (1.6%) 83.3 (23.2%) 0.951
Sede Boqer 29148 571.7 -41.4 (-7.2%) 85.8 (15.0%) 0.964
Tamanrasset 38242 549.5 3.3 (0.6%) 93.3 (17.0%) 0.954
Brasilia 20462 478.7 24.3 (5.1%) 137.9 (28.8%) 0.892
Sao Martinho da Serra 23937 429.4 -1.9 (-0.4%) 105.7 (24.6%) 0.939
De Aar 3570 524.3 -1.1 (-0.2%) 83.3 (15.9%) 0.962

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 43609 54.2 1.1 (2.0%) 25.5 (46.9%) 0.860
Toravere 136252 63.9 -1.8 (-2.8%) 25.5 (39.9%) 0.897
Lindenberg 48436 68.4 -3.1 (-4.6%) 27.5 (40.3%) 0.884
Cabauw 145843 67.2 -2.9 (-4.3%) 27.5 (40.9%) 0.879
Camborne 53778 71.0 -1.1 (-1.6%) 26.1 (36.8%) 0.902
Palaiseau 124002 73.5 2.7 (3.7%) 27.7 (37.7%) 0.892
Payerne 109266 79.4 -6.3 (-8.0%) 28.7 (36.2%) 0.905
Carpentras 156704 98.4 1.0 (1.0%) 23.5 (23.8%) 0.940
Cener 55275 91.6 1.6 (1.7%) 27.1 (29.5%) 0.918
Sede Boqer 120994 140.7 -10.3 (-7.3%) 25.0 (17.7%) 0.950
Tamanrasset 152803 140.7 0.9 (0.6%) 28.6 (20.3%) 0.932
Brasilia 82044 121.4 6.2 (5.1%) 43.1 (35.5%) 0.838
Sao Martinho da Serra 94284 110.1 -0.4 (-0.4%) 33.0 (30.0%) 0.908
De Aar 14075 133.9 -0.3 (-0.2%) 27.2 (20.3%) 0.934

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Quality assessment results of GHI 2 hour ahead persistence forecast

HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
MONTHLY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(kWh/m²)
Bias
(kWh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(kWh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 29 79.6 0.8 (1.0%) 5.7 (7.2%) 0.995
Toravere 104 81.6 -3.0 (-3.7%) 7.4 (9.1%) 0.991
Lindenberg 37 87.3 -4.3 (-4.9%) 6.3 (7.2%) 0.997
Cabauw 111 86.0 -4.3 (-5.0%) 7.9 (9.2%) 0.995
Camborne 40 92.9 -2.3 (-2.5%) 3.9 (4.1%) 0.998
Palaiseau 93 95.1 3.1 (3.3%) 5.5 (5.8%) 0.998
Payerne 88 95.8 -8.1 (-8.4%) 9.8 (10.3%) 0.996
Carpentras 120 124.5 0.1 (0.0%) 4.1 (3.3%) 0.998
Cener 44 111.8 0.2 (0.1%) 4.0 (3.6%) 0.998
Sede Boqer 98 165.6 -15.8 (-9.6%) 17.9 (10.8%) 0.994
Tamanrasset 121 168.6 -0.1 (-0.1%) 8.7 (5.1%) 0.976
Brasilia 60 145.2 6.5 (4.5%) 10.1 (7.0%) 0.946
Sao Martinho da Serra 72 138.1 -2.0 (-1.5%) 7.5 (5.4%) 0.991
De Aar 11 165.6 -1.8 (-1.1%) 2.8 (1.7%) 0.999

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
DAILY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 869 2658.9 15.9 (0.6%) 497.9 (18.7%) 0.966
Toravere 2729 2822.4 -96.8 (-3.4%) 475.8 (16.9%) 0.977
Lindenberg 1103 2927.0 -143.8 (-4.9%) 452.5 (15.5%) 0.981
Cabauw 3277 2894.9 -145.7 (-5.0%) 473.3 (16.4%) 0.979
Camborne 1195 3111.5 -79.9 (-2.6%) 431.0 (13.9%) 0.982
Palaiseau 2798 3157.7 102.1 (3.2%) 400.3 (12.7%) 0.985
Payerne 2350 3340.5 -277.1 (-8.3%) 545.7 (16.3%) 0.980
Carpentras 3521 4248.6 -0.3 (-0.0%) 402.4 (9.5%) 0.986
Cener 1211 3932.3 6.4 (0.2%) 423.7 (10.8%) 0.984
Sede Boqer 2727 5736.0 -548.5 (-9.6%) 700.5 (12.2%) 0.975
Tamanrasset 3169 5914.8 9.1 (0.2%) 623.4 (10.5%) 0.895
Brasilia 1814 5065.9 220.4 (4.4%) 702.9 (13.9%) 0.857
Sao Martinho da Serra 2143 4623.9 -78.1 (-1.7%) 615.6 (13.3%) 0.965
De Aar 326 5523.2 -58.1 (-1.1%) 463.9 (8.4%) 0.974

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
HOURLY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 10027 229.2 1.7 (0.8%) 102.6 (44.8%) 0.851
Toravere 30769 253.8 -7.9 (-3.1%) 98.4 (38.8%) 0.890
Lindenberg 11096 287.9 -14.3 (-5.0%) 108.9 (37.8%) 0.886
Cabauw 33411 282.3 -14.4 (-5.1%) 109.6 (38.8%) 0.877
Camborne 12410 297.7 -8.0 (-2.7%) 107.6 (36.1%) 0.893
Palaiseau 28257 310.4 9.7 (3.1%) 107.7 (34.7%) 0.896
Payerne 24511 328.9 -26.7 (-8.1%) 114.0 (34.7%) 0.903
Carpentras 36119 410.8 -0.1 (-0.0%) 99.0 (24.1%) 0.933
Cener 12748 379.3 0.0 (0.0%) 105.4 (27.8%) 0.921
Sede Boqer 27096 597.3 -55.7 (-9.3%) 120.3 (20.1%) 0.924
Tamanrasset 34571 580.2 0.1 (0.0%) 115.5 (19.9%) 0.928
Brasilia 18651 502.3 23.3 (4.6%) 166.6 (33.2%) 0.836
Sao Martinho da Serra 21887 451.5 -6.9 (-1.5%) 137.2 (30.4%) 0.898
De Aar 3255 553.0 -5.7 (-1.0%) 109.4 (19.8%) 0.933

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 40347 57.6 0.5 (0.8%) 29.9 (52.0%) 0.807
Toravere 124966 68.4 -2.6 (-3.7%) 30.7 (44.9%) 0.852
Lindenberg 44159 73.2 -3.6 (-4.9%) 32.7 (44.7%) 0.840
Cabauw 132988 71.8 -3.6 (-5.0%) 32.7 (45.5%) 0.831
Camborne 49116 76.0 -1.9 (-2.6%) 31.8 (41.8%) 0.855
Palaiseau 113060 78.5 2.6 (3.3%) 32.8 (41.8%) 0.850
Payerne 99064 85.1 -7.2 (-8.4%) 34.2 (40.2%) 0.865
Carpentras 142912 104.8 0.0 (0.0%) 28.8 (27.5%) 0.908
Cener 50285 97.8 0.1 (0.1%) 32.0 (32.7%) 0.883
Sede Boqer 112025 148.2 -14.1 (-9.5%) 33.2 (22.4%) 0.906
Tamanrasset 138086 149.6 -0.0 (-0.0%) 34.0 (22.7%) 0.899
Brasilia 74643 128.4 5.9 (4.6%) 50.0 (39.0%) 0.773
Sao Martinho da Serra 86034 116.6 -1.8 (-1.5%) 40.3 (34.6%) 0.861
De Aar 12827 142.0 -1.5 (-1.1%) 33.0 (23.2%) 0.899

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Quality assessment results of GHI 4 hour ahead persistence forecast

HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
MONTHLY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(kWh/m²)
Bias
(kWh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(kWh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 28 73.6 -1.3 (-1.7%) 4.6 (6.2%) 0.995
Toravere 92 80.5 -5.1 (-6.4%) 8.2 (10.1%) 0.991
Lindenberg 34 81.0 -4.2 (-5.1%) 6.6 (8.2%) 0.996
Cabauw 100 81.2 -5.0 (-6.2%) 8.2 (10.1%) 0.995
Camborne 36 88.6 -4.0 (-4.5%) 6.1 (6.9%) 0.997
Palaiseau 92 82.3 2.5 (3.0%) 4.8 (5.8%) 0.998
Payerne 77 89.1 -8.5 (-9.5%) 10.0 (11.2%) 0.996
Carpentras 118 106.8 -2.1 (-2.0%) 4.3 (4.0%) 0.998
Cener 39 99.4 -2.7 (-2.7%) 5.7 (5.7%) 0.997
Sede Boqer 91 143.0 -20.9 (-14.6%) 23.4 (16.4%) 0.993
Tamanrasset 106 142.9 -1.9 (-1.3%) 7.9 (5.5%) 0.979
Brasilia 55 121.6 3.2 (2.7%) 8.5 (7.0%) 0.878
Sao Martinho da Serra 71 115.0 -4.6 (-4.0%) 9.4 (8.2%) 0.987
De Aar 11 136.6 -3.9 (-2.9%) 4.9 (3.6%) 0.999

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
DAILY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 596 3182.0 -49.7 (-1.6%) 720.1 (22.6%) 0.906
Toravere 1232 3830.1 -206.0 (-5.4%) 684.7 (17.9%) 0.946
Lindenberg 638 3831.1 -186.2 (-4.9%) 730.1 (19.1%) 0.915
Cabauw 1919 3750.1 -272.4 (-7.3%) 757.3 (20.2%) 0.910
Camborne 725 3919.2 -189.1 (-4.8%) 759.6 (19.4%) 0.918
Palaiseau 1682 3955.1 113.2 (2.9%) 666.7 (16.9%) 0.923
Payerne 1148 4429.8 -405.4 (-9.2%) 819.9 (18.5%) 0.923
Carpentras 2229 4890.0 -98.0 (-2.0%) 606.4 (12.4%) 0.940
Cener 729 4611.5 -165.9 (-3.6%) 643.3 (13.9%) 0.932
Sede Boqer 1158 6086.9 -914.3 (-15.0%) 1077.4 (17.7%) 0.877
Tamanrasset 2178 5246.6 -54.9 (-1.0%) 619.9 (11.8%) 0.862
Brasilia 1487 4261.8 99.6 (2.3%) 809.3 (19.0%) 0.705
Sao Martinho da Serra 1344 4777.8 -207.5 (-4.3%) 922.3 (19.3%) 0.874
De Aar 188 5501.1 -117.0 (-2.1%) 626.2 (11.4%) 0.932

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
HOURLY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 8265 247.0 -4.5 (-1.8%) 133.2 (53.9%) 0.764
Toravere 24995 271.3 -13.3 (-4.9%) 132.5 (48.8%) 0.816
Lindenberg 8883 304.2 -15.4 (-5.1%) 140.9 (46.3%) 0.825
Cabauw 26785 299.4 -18.2 (-6.1%) 140.0 (46.8%) 0.818
Camborne 10016 317.5 -15.1 (-4.8%) 139.7 (44.0%) 0.837
Palaiseau 22653 326.6 9.3 (2.8%) 137.2 (42.0%) 0.846
Payerne 19567 345.0 -31.3 (-9.1%) 144.9 (42.0%) 0.857
Carpentras 29067 427.4 -8.5 (-2.0%) 128.5 (30.1%) 0.898
Cener 10253 393.3 -12.1 (-3.1%) 132.5 (33.7%) 0.887
Sede Boqer 21475 616.2 -87.4 (-14.2%) 187.4 (30.4%) 0.829
Tamanrasset 27336 580.6 -1.8 (-0.3%) 146.4 (25.2%) 0.901
Brasilia 14946 498.6 18.5 (3.7%) 197.6 (39.6%) 0.779
Sao Martinho da Serra 17580 457.8 -18.2 (-4.0%) 178.2 (38.9%) 0.840
De Aar 2604 563.9 -15.9 (-2.8%) 141.7 (25.1%) 0.899

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 33294 62.6 -1.2 (-1.8%) 37.3 (59.6%) 0.718
Toravere 101624 74.3 -4.6 (-6.1%) 39.8 (53.6%) 0.770
Lindenberg 35311 78.6 -4.0 (-5.1%) 40.5 (51.5%) 0.777
Cabauw 106472 77.3 -4.7 (-6.0%) 40.3 (52.1%) 0.769
Camborne 39540 82.1 -3.8 (-4.6%) 39.7 (48.3%) 0.795
Palaiseau 90662 83.8 2.5 (3.0%) 40.1 (47.8%) 0.797
Payerne 79044 90.8 -8.7 (-9.5%) 42.1 (46.4%) 0.814
Carpentras 114704 110.8 -2.2 (-2.0%) 36.3 (32.7%) 0.868
Cener 40226 103.5 -3.1 (-3.0%) 39.1 (37.8%) 0.842
Sede Boqer 89485 154.9 -22.5 (-14.5%) 50.4 (32.6%) 0.798
Tamanrasset 108992 152.6 -0.8 (-0.5%) 42.4 (27.8%) 0.865
Brasilia 59828 129.9 4.2 (3.3%) 58.4 (44.9%) 0.711
Sao Martinho da Serra 68743 120.7 -5.0 (-4.1%) 51.1 (42.3%) 0.795
De Aar 10228 146.9 -4.2 (-2.9%) 41.6 (28.3%) 0.856

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Quality assessment results of GHI 6 hour ahead persistence forecast

HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
MONTHLY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(kWh/m²)
Bias
(kWh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(kWh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 17 84.6 -3.7 (-4.4%) 6.8 (8.1%) 0.976
Toravere 43 96.9 -8.4 (-8.7%) 10.3 (10.7%) 0.975
Lindenberg 18 95.7 -5.0 (-5.2%) 8.5 (8.9%) 0.970
Cabauw 55 94.3 -7.6 (-8.1%) 10.0 (10.6%) 0.976
Camborne 20 99.9 -6.7 (-6.7%) 9.7 (9.7%) 0.976
Palaiseau 48 98.4 3.2 (3.2%) 5.8 (5.9%) 0.982
Payerne 34 105.6 -10.3 (-9.7%) 11.2 (10.6%) 0.981
Carpentras 57 121.8 -2.9 (-2.3%) 5.0 (4.1%) 0.991
Cener 19 112.5 -5.9 (-5.2%) 8.2 (7.3%) 0.984
Sede Boqer 29 145.4 -30.8 (-21.2%) 31.3 (21.5%) 0.912
Tamanrasset 34 123.7 2.4 (1.9%) 7.1 (5.8%) 0.827
Brasilia 20 88.1 3.0 (3.4%) 8.0 (9.1%) 0.666
Sao Martinho da Serra 34 111.2 -2.3 (-2.1%) 9.3 (8.4%) 0.938
De Aar 5 127.3 -3.4 (-2.7%) 4.6 (3.6%) 0.997

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
DAILY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 164 4051.1 -285.8 (-7.1%) 1073.3 (26.5%) 0.706
Toravere 163 5524.7 -469.6 (-8.5%) 840.9 (15.2%) 0.838
Lindenberg 65 4946.5 91.1 (1.8%) 921.0 (18.6%) 0.547
Cabauw 109 4994.5 -291.2 (-5.8%) 867.6 (17.4%) 0.740
Camborne 73 5147.7 -498.1 (-9.7%) 1052.9 (20.5%) 0.743
Palaiseau 77 4748.7 33.1 (0.7%) 623.0 (13.1%) 0.862
Payerne 0 NaN NaN (NaN%) NaN (NaN%) NaN
Carpentras 0 NaN NaN (NaN%) NaN (NaN%) NaN
Cener 0 NaN NaN (NaN%) NaN (NaN%) NaN
Sede Boqer 0 NaN NaN (NaN%) NaN (NaN%) NaN
Tamanrasset 0 NaN NaN (NaN%) NaN (NaN%) NaN
Brasilia 0 NaN NaN (NaN%) NaN (NaN%) NaN
Sao Martinho da Serra 0 NaN NaN (NaN%) NaN (NaN%) NaN
De Aar 0 NaN NaN (NaN%) NaN (NaN%) NaN

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
HOURLY SUM OF 15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 6503 246.2 -9.6 (-3.9%) 150.9 (61.3%) 0.712
Toravere 19547 263.7 -17.4 (-6.6%) 149.5 (56.7%) 0.772
Lindenberg 6663 292.0 -14.5 (-5.0%) 153.7 (52.6%) 0.791
Cabauw 20153 291.2 -20.0 (-6.9%) 151.7 (52.1%) 0.791
Camborne 7613 308.9 -19.9 (-6.4%) 155.2 (50.2%) 0.810
Palaiseau 17022 311.4 10.0 (3.2%) 147.1 (47.2%) 0.826
Payerne 14763 323.4 -31.3 (-9.7%) 158.0 (48.9%) 0.831
Carpentras 21989 396.7 -13.3 (-3.4%) 137.0 (34.5%) 0.891
Cener 7709 362.5 -19.6 (-5.4%) 140.0 (38.6%) 0.879
Sede Boqer 15454 559.2 -109.4 (-19.6%) 223.2 (39.9%) 0.781
Tamanrasset 20964 497.4 3.3 (0.7%) 149.7 (30.1%) 0.894
Brasilia 11193 419.2 15.1 (3.6%) 192.0 (45.8%) 0.760
Sao Martinho da Serra 13228 403.9 -23.1 (-5.7%) 184.5 (45.7%) 0.816
De Aar 1944 499.8 -22.5 (-4.5%) 146.7 (29.3%) 0.895

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HelioClim-3 v4 persistence -- GHI Quality assessment results vs. the BSRN stations
15 MIN IRRADIATION
Station Number of values Mean
- BSRN -
(Wh/m²)
Bias
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
RMSE
(Wh/m2)
(relative in %
)
Correl. coeff.
Lerwick 26304 63.0 -2.6 (-4.2%) 41.7 (66.1%) 0.669
Toravere 79544 73.6 -6.3 (-8.5%) 45.3 (61.5%) 0.719
Lindenberg 26432 77.0 -3.8 (-5.0%) 44.2 (57.5%) 0.742
Cabauw 79966 76.4 -5.2 (-6.9%) 43.7 (57.2%) 0.742
Camborne 29942 81.3 -5.1 (-6.3%) 43.7 (53.8%) 0.767
Palaiseau 68164 81.4 2.8 (3.4%) 43.0 (52.9%) 0.777
Payerne 59513 87.1 -8.9 (-10.2%) 46.0 (52.8%) 0.787
Carpentras 86407 105.0 -3.4 (-3.3%) 38.9 (37.1%) 0.861
Cener 30034 98.0 -5.1 (-5.2%) 41.4 (42.2%) 0.836
Sede Boqer 65356 143.0 -28.6 (-20.0%) 60.2 (42.1%) 0.747
Tamanrasset 83064 133.4 0.5 (0.4%) 43.9 (32.9%) 0.860
Brasilia 44838 112.0 3.3 (3.0%) 57.8 (51.6%) 0.698
Sao Martinho da Serra 51391 109.4 -6.3 (-5.8%) 53.8 (49.2%) 0.770
De Aar 7584 133.2 -6.0 (-4.5%) 43.6 (32.8%) 0.853

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